Dealing with Security, Effect of Natural Disasters and Global Warming on Tourism
|1.||Safety and security in tourism||6|
|2.||Effect of natural and other disasters on tourism||7|
|3.||Climate change and tourism||9|
|Warming climate signals big changes for ski areas, says University of Colorado study||24|
There are several types of security incidents that affect tourism. Pizam and Mansfeld (2006) described these types of a given security situation like crime-related incidents, war, terrorism and political/civil unrest (Mansfeld et al. 2006). In most cases, security incidents cause changes in tourists’ perception of risk, and thus are always translated into travel decisions. These could be in form of cancellations of booked trips, avoiding booking trips to affected destination, or, for those already in the affected destination, moving to a safer place or evacuating the destinations and returning home (Mansfeld et al. 2006). Many researches have found and prove that terrorist attacks and political violence influence tourism demand because security and safety are important factors of the allure of destination. Such events as September 11 in 2001, the Bali bombing in 2002, the terrorist attacks in Madrid in 2004, and the recent bombing in Mumbai in December 2008 all have spotlighted the grandness of security for the tourism industry. According to Mansfeld and Pizam (2006) terrorism and civil fermentation have been the reason of legion tourism crises since the beginning of modern tourism in the late 1950s. While civil unrest is more confined to specific destinations and the frequency is relatively low, terrorism has become a worldwide concern for the tourists and tourism industry (Mansfeld et al. 2006). According to Hall (2005) political relations and stability between and within states are highly significant in the sensed safety of tourists and deciding the image of destinations in tourist produced areas (Hall, 2005). Wang (2009) writes that when impact of crisis events comes to deciding where to go on holidays, travellers usually elude places of terrorism and are looking for destinations with secure political situation that guarantee their safety.
Tourism is affected by terrorism through several means. First, environmental impact. Destroyed cities, tourist destinations, destroyed agriculture, damaged water supplies, public health. …